The title should be concise, specific and informative. Please suggest a short running title of six to ten words.
Write your Abstract after the rest of the paper is completed. After all, how can you summarize something that is not yet written? Economy of words is important throughout the paper, but especially in an abstract. However, use complete sentences and do not sacrifice readability for brevity. You can keep it concise by wording sentences so that they serve more than one purpose. This sentence provides the overall question, methods, and type of analysis, all in one sentence. The writer can now go directly to summarizing the results.
Summarize the study, including the following elements in any abstract. Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each.
- Purpose of the study - hypothesis, overall question, objective
- Brief description of the experiment
- Results, including specific data- if the results are quantitative in nature, report quantitative data; results of any statistical analysis should be reported
- Important conclusions or questions that follow from the experiment(s)
- Single paragraph, and concise (must not exceed 350 words)
- Always written in past tense
- Should stand on its own, and not refer to any other part of the paper such as a figure or table
- Focus on summarizing results - limit background information to a sentence or two, if absolutely necessary
- What you report in an abstract must be consistent with what you reported in the paper
- Correct spelling, clarity of sentences and phrases, and proper reporting of quantities (proper units, significant figures) are just as important in an abstract as they are anywhere else
A list of up to 5 key words, including the complete botanical name and common name (if any) of the plant material, must be supplied. Other key words should include the topic investigated and any special techniques used. The list of key words should be complete in itself. Title, abstract and key word list should be informative without reference to the remainder of the paper. The complete scientific name (Genus, species and authority), and cultivar or strain where appropriate, must be cited for every organism on first mention. The generic name may be abbreviated to its initial thereafter, except where reference to other genera could cause confusion. Vernacular names may be added, but should be used alone only when they are unambiguous. Selection of key words should be such that it’s solve the abstracting purpose.
Your introductions should not exceed two pages (double spaced, typed).
The purpose of an introduction is to acquaint the reader with the rationale behind the work. It places your work in a theoretical context, and enables the reader to understand and appreciate your objectives.
- Describe the importance (significance) of the study - why was this worth doing in the first place? Provide a broad context.
- Provide a rationale. State your specific hypothesis(es) or objective(s), and describe the reasoning that led you to select them.
- Very briefly describe the experimental design and how it accomplished the stated objectives.
- Use past tense except when referring to established facts. After all, the paper will be submitted after all of the work is completed.
- Organize your ideas, making one major point with each paragraph. If you make the three points listed above, you will need a minimum of three paragraphs.
- Present background information only where needed in order to support a position.
- State the hypothesis/objective precisely - do not oversimplify.
Materials and Methods
Materials and methods should include relevant details of materials, experimental design, techniques employed and statistical methods used. For well known methods, citation of reference will suffice.
Results and Discussion
Results and discussion should be relevant, critical and supported by published evidence. It should be clear to reader of different disciples. Metric measurements in SI units should be used. If, non-SI units have to be used, the SI equivalents should be added in parentheses on first mention. Units should be spelled out except when preceded by a numeral, when they should be abbreviated g, mg, mL, d, h, ha etc. (not followed by full stops). Use the minus index (m-1, L-1, h-1) except in such cases as 'per plant' or 'per pot'. Numbers up to ten should be given in words except when referring to measurements: give 11 and upwards as numerals, except at the beginning of a sentence. Fractions should be expressed as decimals. Use '%' not 'per cent' in the text. Dates should be as: 1 Jan, 1999.
Tables should be typed on separate sheets with title stating its contents clearly and concisely. Large bodies of primary data should not be presented, and data may not be presented in both tabular and graphical form.
Figures of only good quality that are essential to a clear understanding of the paper shall be accepted. Legends to the illustrations should be typed on separate paper. Information in the legend should not be repeated in the text and similarly, the same data should not be represented in both graph and table form. All figures, whether photographs, maps, graphs or line drawings should be numbered consecutively. Illustration number and title of the article with authors’ name should be given at the back of the plates in soft pencil.
Line drawings of high quality, preferable in the desired final size would be accepted. The inscriptions should be clearly legible.
Photographs for publication should be of high contrast, black and white, glossy print, trimmed at right angles. Magnification should be indicated with a bar scale on the photo.
In acknowledgement please be brief, 'We thank...' (not 'The present authors would like to express their thanks to…..'). It should mentioned only guidance/ assistance received in real terms and financial grant provided by an agency. Acknowledgements for inspiration, typing etc. need not be mentioned.
Citations in the text
Citations in the text should take the form: For papers by three or more authors use et al. throughout. Publications in the text should be cited by- author, year of publication and multiple citations should be in chronological order. Underline only Latin and generic names and the titles of books / journals.
Please comply exactly with the following instructions (Download a Sample Reprint).
|A book in print
Haldhar SM, Rathore PS & Swaminathan R. 2012. Biosystematics of Grasshopper (Acridoidea) in India. Lambert Academic Publishing (LAP) Gmbh & Co.KG, Germany pp: 1-228.
|A book chapter, print version
Haldhar SM, Karuppaiah V, Muralidharan CM & Sharma SK. 2015. Insect-pests of date palm and their management. In A.K. Pandey & M. Pramod (Eds.), Insect Pests Management of Fruit Crops (pp. 405-421). New Delhi, India: Biotech Books Press.
Millbower L. 2003. Show biz training: Fun and effective business training techniques from the worlds of stage, screen, and song. Retrieved from http://www.amacombooks.org/
|An article in a print journal
Haldhar SM, Bhargava R, Singh RS, Krishna H & Sharma SK. 2015. First report of Colotis amata (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) on Salvadora persica (Capparales: Salvadoraceae) in Rajasthan, India: incidence and morphometric analysis. Florida Entomologist, 98(2):442-445.
|An article in a journal without DOI
Haldhar SM, Choudhary BR, Bhargava R & Gurjar K. 2015. Host plant resistance (HPR) traits of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (Roxb.) L. against melon fruit fly, (Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)) in hot arid region of India. Scientia Horticulturae, 194: 168-174. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304423815301205.
|An article in a journal with DOI
Haldhar SM, Bhargava R, Choudhary BR, Pal G & Kumar S. 2013. Allelochemical resistance traits of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) against fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)) in hot arid region of India. Phytoparasitica, 41: 473-481. doi: 10.1007/s12600-013-0325-x.
|Websites - professional or personal sites
The World Famous Hot Dog Site. (1999, July 7). Retrieved January 5, 2008, from http://www.xroads.com/~tcs/hotdog/hotdog.html
|Websites - online government publications
U.S. Department of Justice. (2006, September 10). Trends in violent victimization by age, 1973-2005. Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/glance/vage.htm
Ethical Responsibilities of Authors
To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.
Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:
- Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
- Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
- Informed consent
The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.
The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfil the above-mentioned guidelines.