Journal of Agriculture and Ecology <p>The ‘Journal of Agriculture and Ecology' is an online platform for the advancement and rapid dissemination of scientific knowledge generated by highly motivated researchers in the field of agriculture, ecology and allied fields.<br /><br /><strong>Journal's DOI:</strong> <a title="JAE DOI" href=""></a><a href="">10.58628/JAE</a></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2456-9410</strong> <br /><strong>NAAS Score/Rating: 4.36</strong></p> Society for Agriculture and Arid Ecology Research en-US Journal of Agriculture and Ecology 2456-9410 Impact of humic acid on various properties of soil and crop productivity- A review <p>To raise the amount and quality of agricultural produce, numerous studies have been conducted in recent years. The development of agriculture is not just influenced by mechanization and new hybrid seeds; soil quality also plays a significant role. Lack of organic matter in soil frequently renders it unsuitable for plant growth. To address this problem and increase agricultural yields, humic compounds have started to be applied to soil in many parts of the world. Humic acid (HA) can now be applied to crops or soil using a variety of methods, including soil application, foliar application, seed treatment, root dipping, and drip irrigation, as HA is available in various forms viz., granule, powder, flakes, liquid and also in conjunction with inorganic fertilizers. However, soil application is the most effective in numerous studies. Numerous experiments on crops were carried out to determine the ideal dosage of humic acid, and it was found that character, yield, and soil characteristics all had a favourable impact on crop production. This review clarifies the significance of humic acid for various crops and the health of the soil, as well as how it increases agricultural output.</p> S Mankotia Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 18 1 6 10.58628/JAE-2418-101 Comprehending farmer's views on climate change and agricultural/livestock adaptation in Halavarthi Village, Koppala District, Karnataka: a case study <p>This study conducted in Halavarthi village, Karnataka, delves into the intricate impact of climate change on the community's livelihoods. Over two decades, the semi-arid region has witnessed erratic rainfall, rising temperatures and droughts, with profound consequences for agriculture, livestock and overall food security. The farmers in this area have grappled with numerous challenges, including water scarcity, diminishing water quality, crop losses, increased pest and disease outbreaks and the migration of plant species to new locations. These changes have also led to a weakened immunity in humans and a surge in diseases among both people and livestock. While the farmers have initiated some climate change adaptation measures, like crop rotation and intensifying the use of agricultural inputs, there remains a substantial gap in knowledge and awareness regarding climate change mitigation. This research underscores the pressing need to address the extensive repercussions of climate change on agriculture, food security and human health. It highlights the importance of developing comprehensive strategies to enhance the resilience of farming communities such as Halavarthi in the face of an evolving climate.</p> Y B Naveesh R Raaga N Sagar K P Suresh M Ashwini A Jayashree R Sushma P Krishnamoorthy S J Siju S S Patil Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 18 7 13 10.58628/JAE-2418-102 Kachri melon (a non-dessert form of Cucumis melo) diversity, germplasm utilization and varietal development under hot arid climate: Approaches and realization <p>The native crop plants genetic resource is very essential for nature’s resilient, region and season-specific varietal development and is also used in breeding programmes for resistance towards abiotic and biotic factors. Kachri and mat-kaachr or kachri melon (a non–dessert form of <em>Cucumis melo</em> var. <em>callosus</em> and <em>agrestis</em>) is an un-tapped arid zone cucurbit vegetable. Their vine plants are annual and short-duration in growth habit, and bearing 10.2–220.5 g weight fruits which are edible at maturity and unique in taste with ripening stages. It is wild and weedy types or semi-domesticated land-races and pre-dominantly grown mixed with the traditional farming in the north-western part of India. Intensive explorations and surveys were conducted in the state of Rajasthan from the year 1994 to 2001, and about 625 accessions were collected and studied over the period (1994 to 2012), and out of them, 68 germplasm lines were maintained for the conservation of regional diversity. The germplasm is evaluated repeatedly and characterized and categorized based on the plant morphology, maturity, utility of fruits and size, shape and skin colour of the mature fruits. On the basis of horticultural traits, fruit size, quality and yield components under the heat-stressed arid environment, the genotypes AHK-5, AHK-13, AHK-26, AHK-40, AHK-43, AHK-99, AHK-109, AHK-119, AHK-155, AHK-200, AHK-202, AHK-356, AHK-411, AHK-564 and AHK-572 were found the most promising and utilized in breeding programme. Unique quality, better fruit yielding, early harvesting and multiple stresses tolerating varieties, namely AHK-119 and AHK-200, developed for commercial cultivation. The development and recommendations of kachri melon production technology by ICAR-CIAH, Bikaner resulted in uniform and higher fruit yield (95–110 q/ha) as rainy and summer season harvest and now, its cultivation become much profit-making among the growers as a climate-smart crop. With the HBCPSMA concept, khejri and kachri technology exhibited high productivity of resources and family employment, and also returns @ Rs. 75,000–2,25,000 in comparison to the conventional cropping systems (Rs. 23,000–42,000) per ha/year under rainfed farming.</p> D K Samadia S M Haldhar H Ram A K Verma P S Gurjar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-26 2024-05-26 18 14 27 10.58628/JAE-2418-103 Leafy chenopods: a nutritional powerhouse <p>Leafy chenopods, a group of nutrient-dense, underutilized plant species, have emerged as a promising nutritional powerhouse with immense potential to combat micronutrient malnutrition globally. These resilient, drought-tolerant plants, including quinoa, amaranth, and huauzontle, have been cultivated for centuries by indigenous communities in the Americas and are now gaining recognition for their exceptional nutritional profile. Leafy chenopods are rich sources of protein, dietary fibre, and essential amino acids, making them valuable additions to plant-based diets. Moreover, they are abundant in micronutrients such as iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A, C, and E, addressing common deficiencies in many populations. Their high antioxidant content, derived from compounds like betalains and polyphenols, may confer protective effects against chronic diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and diabetes. Additionally, their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties hold promise for therapeutic applications. These resilient crops can thrive in marginal lands and harsh climatic conditions, making them well-suited for cultivation in areas affected by climate change and water scarcity. Their tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses further enhances their potential as sustainable and climate-smart crops. Leveraging these underutilized crops could be a significant step towards achieving food and nutrition security in the face of climate change and population growth.</p> N K Prajapati S Pasawan M Ram S Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-29 2024-05-29 18 28 31 10.58628/JAE-2418-104 Quantitative analysis of morphometric parameters for prioritization of Warana river basin using remote sensing and GIS <p>An attempt has been made in this paper to study the morphometric characteristics and prioritization of watersheds of the Warana river basin, which falls in the districts of Ratnagiri, Kolhapur, and Sangli and is a major one among five river basins of Maharashtra state, India.&nbsp; As a result, the entire research area has been subdivided into 15 sub-watersheds for prioritization based on morphometric analysis utilizing GIS and remote sensing techniques. The compound parameters were calculated by averaging the priority based on the severity ranking of each watershed. The watersheds were given ultimate priority based on the values of compound parameters. The compound parameter ranged from 6.5 to 9.83 for all 15 watersheds. The watershed 8<sup>th</sup> (compound parameter value 6.5) obtains the greatest priority value and hence becomes a prospective and prioritized candidate for adopting soil conservation measures, whilst the other watersheds with lesser priorities experience less erosion. Such watershed prioritization is beneficial to overall watershed management planning. The morphometric parameters established for this basin as a whole and each watershed will be important for sound water harvesting and groundwater recharge project design on a watershed basis.</p> S Gadakh S S Wandre M A Patil A Jadhav V Shinde J Ghatge K Prathapan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-30 2024-05-30 18 32 38 10.58628/JAE-2418-105 Effect of different organic sources and their combination on growth, yield and economics of millet crop- pearl millet <p>The present investigation was carried out to identify the effects of different combinations of organic nutrition and its role in the growth, yield and economics of the pearl millet variety Shri Ram Pro 90. From the above experimental finding, it may be concluded that the treatment T<sub>3</sub> (100% Neem cake) was found to be best in terms of growth parameters like the highest number of effective tillers (6.82 tillers), tallest plant (128.48 cm) at 60 DAS and yield parameters like longest length of ear head (38.23 cm); thickest girth of ear head (15.57 cm); maximum number of grains per ear (2013.00 grains); highest grain yield per hectare (2787.79 kg/ha) of Pearl millet. The highest net return was found in the T2 (100% Vermicompost), followed by T<sub>3</sub> (100% Neemcake).</p> T Kumar S Pandey D Kumar B Yadav S Pathak V K Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-30 2024-05-30 18 39 43 10.58628/JAE-2418-106 Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of mungbean <p>Nutrient management and their balance application are crucial for the high productivity of the crops; nitrogen and phosphorus are the essential nutrients, which are often deficient in the soil and must be supplied to the crops through various sources. The excessive application of these nutrients can lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases and contribute to eutrophication, water pollution, and many other issues. To determine the optimal application rate of these nutrients, a field experiment was conducted in ANASTU research farm, Kandahar, in 2023 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus levels on the growth and yield of mungbean (<em>Vigna radiata</em> L.). Treatments comprised three levels of nitrogen (0, 20, and 40 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and four levels of phosphorous (0, 40, 60 and 80 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>). The study was carried out using an RCBD design with three replications. The results showed that 20 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and 40 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>, together and separately, enhanced growth parameters (Plant height, leaf area, dry matter, branches plant<sup>-1</sup>), yield attributes (Pods plant<sup>-1</sup>, grains pod<sup>-1</sup>, 100-grain weight and pod length) and grain, stover and total yield, significantly. Overall, this study indicates that the mungbean should be fertilized with 20 kg N ha<sup>–1</sup> and 40 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>–1</sup> in Dand district of Kandahar province.</p> K Fazil S H Hayat H Obaid A Z Ashna H Nimgarri Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 18 44 47 10.58628/JAE-2418-107 Laboratory evaluation of different eco-friendly insecticides against the Egyptian fluted scale, Icerya aegyptiaca <p>Lac cultivation is generally carried out on a limited number of indigenous tree species found scattered in forests and cultivable land. Recent studies show that <em>Flemingia semialata</em> Roxb. (Leguminosae) is an excellent bushy host plant for the cultivation of the kusmi strain of lac insects. The present investigation was carried out with the objective of getting acquainted with the different eco-friendly insecticides under laboratory evaluation against the Egyptian fluted scale, <em>Icerya aegyptica</em><em>.</em> Maximum nymphal mortality of 81.67 per cent and 78.34 per cent was observed at 0.2 per cent Pestoguard and Neemazal after 12 days of treatment, which is statistically at par with each other. 51.67 per cent mortality was achieved after 12 days of treatment at 1 per cent Uro-insecticide and Green mealikil, which is a microbial pesticide that is also effective against the Egyptian fluted scale, <em>Icerya aegyptiaca</em>. The mortality percentage was low after 1, 3 days and seven days, but it gradually increased after 12 days of treatment, obtaining 48.34% mortality, which is statistically at par with Uro-insecticide. All the eco-friendly insecticides used in the present experiment (Uroinsecticides, Pestoguard, green mealikil and neemazal) are effective in controlling the population of <em>Icerya aegyptiaca</em>. Unlike Malathion and Imidacloprid, they don’t have a quick knockdown effect; however, the mortality due to exposure significantly increases as there is an increase in days or duration of application, and they are safe for the lac insect.</p> K I Singh S M Haldhar A Mutum K Linda Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 18 48 52 10.58628/JAE-2418-108 Sheep anthrax outbreak in Muddaballi Village, Karnataka, India: a comprehensive study of factors <p>Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, remains a persistent threat to global public health and livestock industries. This study investigates a sheep anthrax outbreak in Muddaballi Village, Karnataka, India. Muddaballi has a population of 2,450 people and a livestock population of 2,279 animals, including 756 cows, 82 buffaloes, 1,129 sheep, and 312 goats. The village experienced anthrax outbreaks in 2016, 2021, and 2023, with significant sheep mortalities: 4 out of 200 sheep in 2016, 25 out of 150 sheep in 2021, and multiple incidents in 2023 affecting different farmers with mortality rates ranging from 4 to 20 sheep. The ecological characteristics, including an average annual temperature of 27.0°C and annual rainfall of 587 mm, alongside proximity to the Tungabhadra reservoir, played a crucial role in spore survival and transmission. The study highlights socioeconomic factors and Risk Exposure and Mitigation Behaviour (REMB) as critical determinants of anthrax incidence, with farmers reporting strong agreement on the influence of these factors (Likert scale: 4-5). The integration of AI tools for early detection and rapid response, comprehensive disease surveillance, and ensuring vaccine accessibility are essential measures. Training initiatives for local veterinarians and farmers are also crucial to mitigate future outbreaks. This multifaceted approach is vital for effective anthrax prevention and control in Muddaballi and similar regions.</p> K P Suresh N Sagar Y B Naveesh A Jayashree D Hemadri S S Patil R Doddamani R Sushma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 18 53 56 10.58628/JAE-2418-110