Journal of Agriculture and Ecology <p>The ‘Journal of Agriculture and Ecology' is an online platform for the advancement and rapid dissemination of scientific knowledge generated by highly motivated researchers in the field of agriculture, ecology and allied fields.<br /><br /><strong>Journal's DOI:</strong> <a title="JAE DOI" href=""></a><a href="">10.58628/JAE</a></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2456-9410</strong> <br /><strong>NAAS Score/Rating: 4.36</strong></p> Society for Agriculture and Arid Ecology Research en-US Journal of Agriculture and Ecology 2456-9410 Plant-insect interaction in underutilized horticultural crops for sustainable production <p>Plants and insects have been living together for more than 350 million years. In co-evolution, both have evolved strategies to avoid each other’s defense systems. This evolutionary arms race between plants and insects has resulted in the development of an elegant defense system in plants that can recognise the non-self-molecules or signals from damaged cells, much like animals. It activates the plant’s immune response against the herbivores. Differences in genotypes of plant characters may affect insect-plant herbivore interactions, and variations in genotype traits are responsible for modifying the bottom-up effects. Recent evidence shows that the simultaneous occurrence of abiotic and biotic stress can positively affect plant performance by reducing the susceptibility to biotic stress, a positive sign for pest management. Plant responses to these stresses are multifaceted and involve copious antibiosis, physiological, antixenotic, molecular, molecular and cellular adaptations. Plants with antibiosis characteristics such as flavonoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, etc., may cause reduced insect survival, prolonged development time, decreased size and reduced new generation fitness. Quality and quantity of constitutive secondary metabolites production is species as well as cultivar specific and can be expressed as the signature of a particular plant or species and leads to the phenomenon of host-plant resistance. Hence, such plant resistance mechanisms have been effectively and widely used for managing insect pests in fields of underutilized crops. Natural defences are mediated through plant characteristics that affect insect biology, such as mechanical protection on the surface of the plants (<em>e.g</em>., hairs, trichomes, thorns, spines and thicker leaves) that either kill or retard the development of the herbivores. These phenomena of host plant resistance to insects can be exploited for the development of resistance crop cultivars which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation and can perform as one of the integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.</p> SM Haldhar B Sinha BR Choudhary D Singh J Konsam N Thaochan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-06 2023-08-06 17 1 13 10.58628/JAE-2316-301 Microbiological resources- an alternate approach for sustainable management of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) <p>Fall Army Worm (<em>Spodoptera frugiperda</em>), with the traits of devastating, voracious, polyphagous nature had recently imposed a global threat. Possessing these traits, this pest constituted a threat to global food security by ambushing more than several host plant species. To tackle this pest, insecticide management approaches was used initially. Later, with a better comprehension of the dynamic biology of the pest, such as their long migration capability, their ability to develop resistance against insecticide and the adverse effects of pesticides on human and the environment, an alternative strategy which is environmentally safe <em>i.e., </em>biological control approaches that is effective and low-risk is laid emphasis. A rich diversity of microbial populations which have the ability to infect the pest to a certain degree in nature remains untapped, and if so, identification of high virulence and productive strains within the population is lacking hitherto. This review focused on the information regarding the scenario of the occurring pest and its damaging nature to the host plants and microbial agents with their surplus potentialities along with the mode of interactions with the insect pest and self-perpetuating nature and their boon of disarming nature. The details of each microbe <em>viz.,</em> fungi, bacteria and viruses that possess the traits of controlling the pest naturally are briefed with an insight into molecular information, present findings, constraint and future prospects.</p> B Sinha SM Haldhar K Chakrapani CN Nidhi Z Ralte B Wangkhem J Konsam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-06 2023-08-06 17 14 25 10.58628/JAE-2317-302 A comprehensive analysis of biomass energy in India for agricultural and domestic use <p>Biomass is an abundant and renewable resource in India, with vast potential for use in energy production, agricultural applications, and waste management. The country has made significant strides in developing and utilizing biomass resources for various purposes in recent years. One of the primary uses of biomass in India is for energy production. Biomass fuels, such as wood chips, agricultural residues, and municipal waste, are used in rural areas for cooking and heating. Additionally, the government has implemented policies and initiatives to promote the use of biomass for electricity generation. Biomass-based power plants have been established nationwide, with a total installed capacity of over 9,000 MW. Biomass is also used in agricultural applications in India. The country is a major producer of sugarcane, and bagasse, a byproduct of sugarcane processing, is commonly used as a feedstock for producing biofuels and biogas. Additionally, farmers are increasingly using biomass-based fertilizers and pesticides to improve soil health and reduce chemical inputs. Regarding waste management, biomass is a valuable resource for converting organic waste into useful products. Anaerobic digestion and composting are popular methods for treating organic waste, with the resulting biogas and compost being used for energy generation and agricultural applications, respectively. Overall, biomass is an essential resource for India, providing energy, supporting agriculture, and promoting sustainable waste management practices. With continued investment and innovation, biomass has the potential to play an even more significant role in the country's energy and agricultural sectors in the coming year.</p> A Prakash K Lal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Agriculture and Ecology 2023-08-24 2023-08-24 17 26 29 10.58628/JAE-2317-303 Assessing the mercury removal efficiency of natural adsorbents from wastewater <p>Organic waste materials <em>viz</em>., coir pith, rice husk, and water hyacinth were studied in the batch experiments to evaluate their potential for mercury removal from wastewater. Five pH (4,5,6,7,8) and five different contact times (1,2,4,6,8 hours) were studied with a constant mercury concentration of 0.1 ppm. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) were used for characterizing the biochars <em>i.e.</em>, rice husk biochar (RHBC), coir pith biochar (CPBC) and water hyacinth biochar (WHBC), used for the experiment before and after adsorption studies. Adsorption capacities of each different biochar used for the experiment varied due to their wide range of surface area as well as different shift patterns in the FTIR. Based on the experimental results, among the three adsorbents used for mercury removal from wastewater, coirpith biochar (CPBC) has a maximum removal efficiency of 46.2% followed by rice husk biochar (RHBC–44.8%) and water hyacinth biochar (45.6%) with 6 hours of contact time.</p> K Suganya R Sunitha M Maheswari R Rizam E Parameswari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-24 2023-08-24 17 30 33 10.58628/JAE-2317-304 Identification of spoilage yeasts in cashew apple (Annacardium occidentale L.) using MALDI-TOF MS <p>Cashew (<em>Annacardium occidentale</em> L.) is a hardy and golden crop of arid regions, and the pseudo fruit, cashew apple is a vital source of sugars and vitamins that is discarded as a waste during cashew nut processing. Cashew apples start fermenting soon after the harvest, and due to the presence of a wide spectrum of polyphenols and tannins, the change of colour of cashew apples leads to an unappealing marketability and storage stability. The present study is aimed to rapid identification of different spoilage yeasts and to identify them using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectroscopy. Spoilage yeasts like <em>Candida krusei, C. tropicalis, Pichia </em><em>norvegensis, Brettannomyces bruxellensis </em>were the spoilage yeasts found to have high confidence score values of 2.00 - 3.00 with high consistency.</p> G Gayathry P Maheshwari R Arthee Asangeetha Kjothilakshmi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-24 2023-08-24 17 34 37 10.58628/JAE-2317-305 Performance evaluation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth, yield and quality under subtropical climate <p>Lettuce (<em>Lactuca sativa</em> L.) belongs to the family Asteraceae and is known as a leafy salad vegetable. It is rich in vitamins like Vitamin A and C, and also a good source of minerals such as iron, sodium, calcium <em>etc</em>. It is more popular in temperate regions and also performing well under subtropical climatic conditions during the winter season. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to identify the suitable variety of lettuce for higher yield and quality under subtropical climate. The experiment was conducted with five treatments replicated thrice. Seeds of these five lettuce varieties viz., Tango, Bingo, Summer Star, Grand Rapid and Black Rose were sown in portrays prefilled with a combination of media made of coco peat, vermiculite and perlite in the ratio 3:1:1. After thirty days plants were plugged out and transplanted under field condition to study the performance of lettuce varieties. Among the studied varieties, the maximum yield (191.44 q/ha) was recorded with the variety Summer Star which was at par (190.32 q/ha) with the Bingo variety, followed by (129.50 q/ha) in Tango and the least (85.51 q/ha) by Black Rose. However, vitamin C content and total carotenoid content were significantly found highest (15.98 mg/ 100 g) and 8.06 mg/ 100 g in the Black Rose variety, respectively. Tango variety observed maximum chlorophyll ‘a’ (5.85 mg/ g FW), ‘b’ (2.01 mg/ g FW) and total chlorophyll (7.85 mg/ g FW) content among studied lettuce varieties.</p> A Sahil SR Singh K Kumar J N Tiwari N Mukesh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 17 38 43 10.58628/JAE-2317-306 Bio-efficacy of newer insecticides and bio-pesticides against termite on chickpea in arid region of Rajasthan <p>The seed treatment, as well as soil application of imidacloprid 600 FS @ 5 ml/kg + <em>Beauveria bassiana</em> 1.15 WP @ 2 kg /ha, was found most effective against termite (9.34% plant damage) after 110 days of crop sowing, followed by fipronil 5 SC @ 5 ml/ kg + <em>Metarrihizium anisopliae </em>1.15 WP <em>@ </em>2 kg/ha (10%) and clothianidin 50 WDG @ 2 g/ kg + <em>Beauveria bassiana </em>1.15 WP <em>@ </em>2 kg /ha (10.62%). The treatments alone seed treatment of imidacloprid 600 FS @ 5 ml/ kg seed (11.56%) followed by fipronil 5 SC @ 5 ml/ kg seed (12.03%) and clothianidin 50 WDG @ 2 g/ kg seed (12.65%) were found moderately effective while, bio-pesticides <em>viz., Metarrihizium anisopliae </em>1.15 WP <em>@ </em>2 kg/ha and <em>Beauveria bassiana </em>1.15 WP <em>@ </em>2 kg /ha with 15.78 and 15.47 per cent plant damage were found least effective for controlling the termite population. The maximum yield was obtained in imidacloprid 600 FS + <em>Beauveria bassiana </em>1.15 WP (18.70 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by fipronil 5 SC + <em>Metarrihizium anisopliae </em>1.15 WP (18.20 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) and clothianidin 50 WDG + <em>Beauveria bassiana</em>1.15 WP (18.00 q ha<sup>-1</sup>), respectively.</p> Shivani Choudhary MK Gurjar HL Deshwal BL Jat Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 17 44 48 10.58628/JAE-2317-307 Effect of nano nitrogen and phosphorus on growth, yield and quality of ber, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam <p>An experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Mandor, Jodhpur (Raj.) to find out the effects of nano nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of ber using Factorial Randomized Block Design with 5 replications from October 2021 to March 2022. The result showed that the maximum rise (6.45 %) in plant height (79.17 cm), number of primary branches (14.72), secondary branches (22.09), chlorophyll contents (55.34 SPAD value), fruit volume (20.63cm<sup>3</sup>), specific gravity (0.95), fruit length at harvest (3.42 cm), fruit diameter at harvest (3.16 cm), pulp thickness (12.56 mm), pulp weight (15.79 g), pulp: stone ratio (19.20), fruit setting (6.92 %), average fruit weight (18.00 g), yield/ tree (64.57 kg), ascorbic acid (65.75 mg/100g pulp), total soluble solid (15.77°Brix), total sugar (9.20 %), reducing sugar (4.83 %), non-reducing sugar (4.37 %), fruit pH (5.50) whereas minimum stone weight (0.82 g) and fruit drop (49.38 %) was recorded with the application of nano nitrogen @ 2 ml/ litter water +&nbsp; nano phosphorus @ 2 ml/ litter water spray over the control.</p> SM Meena RL Bhardwaj K Pushpa L Kumar S Poonia R Kuri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 17 49 52 10.58628/JAE-2317-308 Screening of different genotypes/cultivars of black gram against stem fly, Melanagromyza sojae (Zehntner) in Kharif season <p>Total thirteen black gram genotypes/cultivars (SKNU-13-02, SKNU-13-03, SKNU-13-05, SKNU-11-11, SKNU-12-04, SKNU-12-07, SKNU-12-08, SKNU-15-01, SKNU-15-02, SKNU-15-03, T9, GU 1 and Rajasthan local) were screened for their relative susceptibility against stem fly, <em>Melanagromyza sojae </em>during summer (2017) at Entomological farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand.SKNU-15-01 (17.99%), SKNU-15-02 (18.81%) and SKNU-12-07 (19.48%) registered less infestation of stem fly and emerged as resistant genotypes<strong><em>. </em></strong>The genotypes/cultivars SKNU-13-05 (35.43%), SKNU-12-08 (35.83%) and Rajasthan local (38.26%) proved to be moderately resistant. GU 1 (51.43%), T9 (55.00%), SKNU-13-02 (55.05%), SKNU-12-04 (55.05%), SKNU-15-03 (58.03%) and SKNU-13-03 (59.25%) categorized as moderately susceptible. At the same time, SKNU-11-11 (60.36%) proved to be susceptible against stem fly. Maximum seed yield was harvested from the genotype SKNU-15-02 (833 kg/ha) during <em>Kharif</em>, 2017 followed by SKNU-12-07 (786 kg/ha).</p> NP Pathan DB Sisodiya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 17 53 57 10.58628/JAE-2317-309 Population dynamics of arthropods on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum l.) in Vindhya plateau region of Madhya Pradesh <p>The field experiment results on “population dynamics of different insect pest and their natural enemies on tomato” showed that the aphid population peaked in the 7<sup>th</sup> SMW (8.83 aphids/6 leaves) during <em>Rabi</em> Season 2021-22. <em>Amrasca biguttula </em>population attained its peak (6.33 jassids/ 6 leaves) during the 11<sup>th </sup>SMW. The first peak of the leaf miner population was observed (4.67 leaf miner/6 leaves) during the 11<sup>th</sup> SMW and the second during the 16<sup>th</sup> SMW. The tomato mirid bug had the highest mean population (5.80 bugs/ plant) during the 11<sup>th</sup> SMW. The damaged fruit borer (<em>H. armigera</em>) was&nbsp;first&nbsp;recorded&nbsp;during&nbsp;the&nbsp;9<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;SMW and maximum fruit damage was 96 per cent during the 13<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;SMW. The maximum mean population of ladybird beetle (5.26 lady beetles/ plant) and weaver ant (12.06 Weaver ant/ plant) was recorded during the 11<sup>th</sup> standard week. The peak population of damselfly (2.20 damselfly/ plant), whitefly (7.83 whitefly/6 leaves) and dragonfly (2.20 dragonflies/plant) were observed during the 10<sup>th </sup>SMW.</p> M Netwal Y Patel Arvind M Redhu A Saini Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 17 58 65 10.58628/JAE-2317-310 A functional decision support system for management of Graphiola leaf spot (Graphiola phoenicis) disease during hardening of date palm tissue cultured plants in a greenhouse <p>A functional decision support system (DSS) was developed through optimising values of parameters favour faster growth and development of tissue cultured plantlets of date palm and suppression of disease infection. The programming of control devices was further managed based on the ambient environmental conditions, which required variable simulation periods and a plan for controlling of all systems for maintaining the greenhouse environment. During the process of plant hardening, the plants were infected by Graphiola leaf spot <em>(Graphiola phoenicis</em>)<em>. </em>The moderate temperature, and high humidity inside the greenhouse, accompanied by short days and frequent occurrence of fog during winter months, favoured the development of smut infection. It is required to manage an extended photoperiod for 16 hours with 15000 lux light intensity provided by white fluorescent tube lights and incandescent bulbs inside the greenhouse. The integrated practices of enhanced photoperiod and light intensity under the greenhouse in combination with fungicides application to plants were found very effective in suppressing the intensity of the disease and its adverse effects on the plants. Using this decision support system (DSS), the tissue cultured date palm plants cv. Barhee has been successfully hardened and managed disease and transplanted in the field for further studying establishment, survival, plant growth and fruiting-related parameters.</p> D Singh K Kumar PN Sivalingam C Ram GB Patil N Subhash Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-29 2023-09-29 17 66 70 10.58628/JAE-2317-311 Productivity of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as influenced by phosphorus fertilizer <p>A Field experiment was conducted at the agriculture faculty of Kunduz University farm during the summer season of 2023 to study the effect of genotypes and phosphorus levels on growth, yield attributes and yield of mungbean. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with two genotypes of mugbean <em>viz</em> watani and Zirati, four phosphorus levels <em>viz</em> control (no fertilizer), 20, 40 and 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>ha<sup>-1</sup> with three replications The experimental findings indicated that the growth parameters, yield attributes and yield <em>viz</em>. plant height (63.50cm), days to 50% flowering stage (36.50 days), days to maturity (76.5), LAI at harvest (1.61), dry matter (111.83gr/plant), branches/plant(10.33), pod length (6.73cm), pods/plant (16.66), seeds/pod (7.66),100 seed weight (32.5gr), seed yield (1227.83 kg/ha), stover yield (1,977.50 kg/ha) and biological yield (3,205.33kg/ha) were enhanced due to watani genotypes along with application of 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>ha<sup>-1</sup>, whereas the minimum growth parameters, yield attributes and yield was obtained in the plots Zirati genotypes with no phosphorus application.</p> Khalilullah Khaleeq Ahmad Munir Amini Mohammad Alim Behzad Najibullah Hemmat SS Rathore Mohammad Aiob Mansoor Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 17 71 74 10.58628/JAE-2317-312 Evaluation of different fungicides against afla rot, Aspergillus flavus Link in groundnut <p>Four systemic, four non-systemic and two combined fungicides at different concentrations were tested <em>in vitro </em>through poison food technique against <em>Aspergillus flavus </em>(Link)<em>, </em>a causal organism of afla rot of groundnut. All the fungicides with their respective concentration were found inhibitory to the radial growth of <em>A. flavus</em>. Among all the systemic fungicides the highest growth inhibition of 99.99 per cent was recorded with tebuconazole 25% EC at all concentration (100, 250 and 500 ppm) followed by carbendazim 50% WP at 500 ppm (99.99%), 250 ppm (85.64%) and 100 ppm (82.64%) and hexaconazole 5% EC at 500 ppm (99.99%), 250 ppm (84.75%) and 100 ppm (77.58%). Among non-systemic fungicides, the highest growth inhibition of 90.88, 86.01 and 81.19 per cent were recorded with mancozeb 75% WP at 1500, 1000 and 500 ppm concentration, respectively. Among the combined fungicides, the highest growth inhibition 99.99 per cent was recorded with Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP at concentrations of 1500, 1000 and 500 ppm, respectively.</p> VJ Chaudhari BR Nakrani VM Jitaliya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 17 75 79 10.58628/JAE-2317-313 The ocean carbon pool: a vital component of the global carbon cycle <p>The global carbon cycle is an integral part of the Earth System. Of the land, atmosphere, and ocean components of the global carbon cycle that exchange carbon on the timescales of decades to centuries, the ocean contains more than 90% of carbon. The ocean carbon pool represents a critical component of the Earth's carbon cycle, playing a pivotal role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) levels and influencing climate dynamics. The exponential increase of total anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> emissions in the industrial era implies the ocean's uptake has increased exponentially, reaching 2.5 ± 0.6 Pg C yr<sup>-1</sup> for 2009-2018. Without the ocean and land sinks, atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> levels would be close to 600 ppm. The ocean carbon pool comprises dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), organic carbon, and particulate organic matter, collectively responsible for the sequestration and release of carbon into the atmosphere. Phytoplankton, the microscopic marine plants, play a fundamental role in the oceanic carbon cycle by photosynthesizing and fixing atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> into organic matter. This organic matter can be transferred to the deep ocean through the biological pump, further contributing to the storage of carbon in the form of sinking particles. The bulk of the global ocean margin represents a carbon sink of ~0.1-0.2 Pg C. Oceanic processes, such as ocean circulation and upwelling, help redistribute carbon from surface waters to the deep ocean. The solubility pump, which is driven by changes in temperature and salinity, also affects the solubility of CO<sub>2</sub> in seawater. These natural processes work to mitigate the increase in atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations and help regulate global temperatures.</p> P Kalaiselvi RM Devi E Parameswari SP Sebastian V Dayamani T Ilakiya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 17 80 84 10.58628/JAE-2317-314 Economic benefits of animal pollination to Punjab agriculture <p>Indian Punjab is gradually becoming the promised land of diversified farming with beekeeping as an important component, as farmers are looking for ways to get out of the paddy-wheat cycle. With this consideration, the present study estimated that the contribution of animal pollinators toward state agriculture. The economic value due to pollination service (EVP) was Rs 1391.2 crores forming about a 2 per cent share in the EV of output from state agriculture. Among the entomophilous crops, the insect pollination was essential for 2; great for 3; modest for 4 and of little importance to another 4 crops. About 42 per cent of the non-animal pollination-dependent crops accounted for a major share in the EV <em>i.e.</em> 97.87 per cent of the total agriculture output of the state. The share of cereals was the highest in the EV <em>i.e.</em> 86.79 per cent followed by vegetables (5.50%), fruits (5.32%), cotton (1.69%), sugarcane (0.35%), oilseeds (0.32%) and gram (0.01%) while based on dependence rate, the EVP was the highest in fruits (49.78%) followed by vegetables (21.49%), cotton (19.85%) and oilseeds (8.88%) and there existed no EVP for cereals and sugarcane and gram. The crops having great dependence on pollination contributed the maximum (Rs 741.13 crore) <em>i.e.</em> about 53 per cent to the EVP and about 1 per cent to the EV in the state agriculture. There is a strong need to realize the potential of this segment and formulate crop and commodity-specific strategies for optimum utilization of animal pollination inputs followed by crop diversification to high-value commodities. Punjab agriculture faces challenges on the production front and increased production cost needs such as “micro concepts” with “macro-economic” impacts.</p> Sangeet Ranguwal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 17 85 89 10.58628/JAE-2317-315 Response of maize (Zea mays L.) to the soil application of phosphorus fertilizer <p>To investigate the effect of different phosphorus levels on the yield and yield components of maize crop, the experiment was carried out in the Badakhshan province of Afghanistan and was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications having a plot size of 2 m x 3 m (6m<sup>2</sup>) with row-to-row distance of 0.75 m and plant to plant distance of 0.25 m. The levels of phosphorus were 0 (control), 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>. Results indicated that the different levels of phosphorus significantly affected maize plant height, leaf area index, No. of cobs/plant, Cob length (cm), No. of Grains/cob, No. of Rows/cob, 100 grain weight (gr), seed yield and Stover yield. Application of Phosphorus at the rate of 160 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> resulted in maximum plant height (181.02 cm), leaf area index (2.30), No. of cobs/plant (2.20), Cob length (18.63cm), No. of Grains/cob (347.33), No. of Rows/cob (17.67), 100-grain weight (20.33gr), seed yield 4882 kg/ha and Stover yield 6943 kg/ha as compared to the minimum values in control plots. It is concluded that Phosphorus should applied at the rate of 160 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>ha<sup>-1 </sup>for the best grain yield in the agro-ecological conditions in Badakhshan province.</p> K Khaleeq R Nazir N Hemmat WA Sirat M Samim Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 17 90 93 10.58628/JAE-2317-316 Decoding agricultural needs: An in-depth analysis of farmer queries in Punjab's Kisan call center <p>Adopting a demand-driven approach in a rapidly changing agricultural sector is crucial for extension services to remain relevant and impactful in India. In this direction, the article presents a comprehensive analysis of over two million farmer query calls made to the Kisan Call Center in Punjab, India, from January 2009 to August 2023. These preprocessed call logs are a vital link between farmers and agricultural support services, providing valuable insights into the agricultural community's challenges and requirements. Our analysis commences by examining temporal trends in farmer query calls, offering year-wise statistics that unveil the evolution of call volumes over time. Furthermore, we delve into the dataset to provide month-wise insights, shedding light on the seasonality of these queries. By identifying peak months of call activity, we can pinpoint critical periods when farmers require assistance the most. Furthermore, district-wise analysis aids in mapping the geographical distribution of these calls, enabling policymakers and agricultural authorities to target specific regions with tailored interventions. Our breakdown by crop category and query type also provides a granular perspective on farmers' concerns. By categorising calls based on the crops and query types, we gain valuable insights into the distinct challenges faced by Punjab's farmers. This information can guide the development of agricultural policies, extension services, and support programs tailored to address the unique needs of different crop categories and query types. Ultimately, this study underscores the significance of harnessing data-driven insights to enhance agricultural support systems, ensuring India's farming community's long-term sustainability and prosperity.</p> S Godara RS Bana Shruti Godara R Parsad S Marwaha Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 17 94 98 10.58628/JAE-2317-317 Nitrogen and phosphorus effects on growth, and yield of black-eyed bean (Vigna unguiculata L.) <p>The combination of nitrogen and phosphorous plays a vital role in increasing the productivity of black-eyed bean. Therefore, a study was carried out at the Research Farm of Afghanistan National Agriculture Sciences and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar, Afghanistan during the spring of 2020 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) doses on the growth, yield and economics of black-eyed bean (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em> L.). The treatment consists of four levels of nitrogen (0, 20, 30 and 40 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in main plots and four levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) in a sub-plot laid out in a split-plot design and replicated thrice. The plant height, LAI and dry matter accumulation in blacked-eye bean was significantly affected by N and P doses. The grain yield, biological yield and net return of black-eyed bean were significantly higher with the application of 30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> in combination with 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> in the sandy clay loam soil of Kandahar, Afghanistan.</p> WA Seerat R Nazir H Nimgrri K Khaleeq Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 17 99 102 10.58628/JAE-2317-318 Nitrogen and weed management effects on soybean (Glycine max L.) yield in Kandahar, Afghanistan <p>Soybean [<em>Glycine max</em> (L.)] ranks fourth among the most important crops in the world, following maize (1017 Mt), wheat (713 Mt) and rice (741 Mt). In 2014, soybean was grown in an area of about 111 M ha worldwide. The global production of soybean has shown a rising trend over the years (79 Mt in 1983, 115 Mt in 1993, 191 Mt in 2003, and 276 Mt in 2013). To assess the impact of weed and N management on soybean growth and productivity, a field experiment was carried out in a split-plot design with three replications during the spring season of 2020-21 at the Afghanistan National Agricultural Science and Technology University (ANASTU), Kandahar, Afghanistan. The main plot treatments consisted of three weed management options, namely weedy check, pendimethalin 1 kg/ha at 1-2 DAS followed by 1 hand weeding at 25 DAS and pendimethalin 1 kg/ha at 1-2 DAS followed by Imazethapyr 100 g/ha at 25 DAS. The sub-plot treatments included four N levels (~0, 40, 60 and 80 kg N/ha, i.e., N0, N40, N60 and N80). Weed and N management had significant effects on all the growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of soybean. The highest values of plant height, leaf area index, DMA per plant, grain yield, Stover yield, biological yield and harvest index were recorded with the application of pendimethalin fb imazethapyr with 80 kg N/ha. Therefore, it is suggested that pendimethalin fb imazethapyr with 80 kg N/ha should be applied for effective weed control and higher soybean production and income in Kandahar, Afghanistan.</p> M Samim A Ahmad A Afghan M Haqmal K Shekhawat E Rahimi SA Tamim MA Ashraf S Shams Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 17 103 108 10.58628/JAE-2317-319 Physiological studies on Alternaria porri caused purple blotch of onion under In-vitro conditions <p>The effect of nutrient media, temperature, pH level, carbon and nitrogen ion concentration were studied on mycelial growth and sporulation of&nbsp;<em>Alternaria porri</em> caused purple blotch of onion. The investigations revealed that Potato dextrose agar was the best culture medium for <em>A. porri</em>. The maximum mycelial growth of <em>A. porri</em> was recorded on 30°C temperature (85.74 mm) and pH 7.0 (83.40 mm). <em>A. porri</em> grew significantly better response to the source of carbon nutrient media on mycelial growth and observed the maximum mycelial growth on maltose (88.26 mm) based medium with highest sporulation and potassium nitrate-based media source of nitrogen gave maximum mycelial growth (80.75 mm) and sporulation of <em>A. porri.</em> The present findings are useful for the preparation of inoculums required for resistance breeding and fungicidal evaluation against pathogen <em>A. porri.</em></p> D Kumar SL Godara MK Sheshma Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 17 109 112 10.58628/JAE-2317-320