Sheep anthrax outbreak in Muddaballi Village, Karnataka, India: a comprehensive study of factors

Authors

  • K P Suresh -
  • N Sagar -
  • Y B Naveesh -
  • A Jayashree -
  • D Hemadri -
  • S S Patil -
  • R Doddamani -
  • R Sushma -

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.58628/JAE-2418-110

Keywords:

Anthrax outbreak, Sheep anthrax, Disease surveillance, Livestock trading, Disease prevention

Abstract

Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, remains a persistent threat to global public health and livestock industries. This study investigates a sheep anthrax outbreak in Muddaballi Village, Karnataka, India. Muddaballi has a population of 2,450 people and a livestock population of 2,279 animals, including 756 cows, 82 buffaloes, 1,129 sheep, and 312 goats. The village experienced anthrax outbreaks in 2016, 2021, and 2023, with significant sheep mortalities: 4 out of 200 sheep in 2016, 25 out of 150 sheep in 2021, and multiple incidents in 2023 affecting different farmers with mortality rates ranging from 4 to 20 sheep. The ecological characteristics, including an average annual temperature of 27.0°C and annual rainfall of 587 mm, alongside proximity to the Tungabhadra reservoir, played a crucial role in spore survival and transmission. The study highlights socioeconomic factors and Risk Exposure and Mitigation Behaviour (REMB) as critical determinants of anthrax incidence, with farmers reporting strong agreement on the influence of these factors (Likert scale: 4-5). The integration of AI tools for early detection and rapid response, comprehensive disease surveillance, and ensuring vaccine accessibility are essential measures. Training initiatives for local veterinarians and farmers are also crucial to mitigate future outbreaks. This multifaceted approach is vital for effective anthrax prevention and control in Muddaballi and similar regions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

K P Suresh, -

ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Bengaluru

N Sagar, -

ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Bengaluru

Y B Naveesh, -

ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Bengaluru

A Jayashree, -

ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Bengaluru

D Hemadri, -

ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Bengaluru

S S Patil, -

ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Bengaluru

R Doddamani, -

Assistant Director, Department of AH & VS, Government of Karnataka, India

R Sushma, -

ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Bengaluru

References

ylaiah S, Shedole S, Suresh KP, Gowda L, Shivananda B, Shivamallu C & Patil SS. 2022. Disease Prediction Model to Assess the Impact of Changes in Precipitation Level on the Risk of Anthrax Infectiousness among the Livestock Hosts in Karnataka, India. International Journal of Special Education, 37(3): 711–727.

Indrabalan UB, Suresh KP, Beelagi MS, Patil SS, Shivamallu C, Pappana M & Amachawadi AG. 2022. Reverse vaccinology based in silico analysis of Epitope prediction in cya, lef and pagA genes from Bacillus anthracis against Anthrax infected species: An Immunoinformatics approach. Chemical Biology Letters, 9(2):295-303.

Mongoh MN. 2005. Characterization of an outbreak of anthrax in animals in North Dakota: 243 cases. Bovine-Practitioner, 41(2): 101–109. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21423/bovine-vol41no2p101-109

Naveesh YB, Raaga R, Sagar N, Suresh KP, Ashwini M, Jayashree A, Sushma R, Krishnamoorthy P, Siju SJ & Patil SS. 2024. Comprehending farmer's views on climate change and agricultural/livestock adaptation in Halavarthi Village, Koppala District, Karnataka: a case study. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 18: 7-13; https://doi.org/10.58628/JAE-2418-102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.58628/JAE-2418-102

Sagar N, Suresh KP, Jayashree A, Naveesh YB, Sushma R, Hemadri D, Patil SS & Archana CA. 2023a. Anthrax Outbreak Study in Hatti Village, Karnataka: Insights, Implications, and Strategies. ARC Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 8(1): 23–27. DOI: 10.20431/2455-2518.0801005.

Sagar N, Suresh KP, Naveesh YB, Jayashree A, Hemadri D, Patil SS, Sushma R & Archana CA. 2023b. Suspected Anthrax Outbreaks or Sudden Animal Deaths in Hyati Mundaragi Village in Koppal, Karnataka, India: A Farmer Prospective. Int. J. Environ. Clim. Change, 13(11): 4319–4325. DOI: 10.9734/IJECC/2023/v13i113612. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113612

Suresh KP, Bylaiah S, Patil S, Kumar M, Indrabalan UB & Panduranga BA. 2022. A New Methodology to Comprehend the Effect of El Niño and La Niña Oscillation in Early Warning of Anthrax Epidemic among Livestock. Zoonotic Dis., 2: 267–290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/zoonoticdis2040022

Suresh KP, Sagar N, Jayashree A, Patil SS, Naveesh YB, Sushma R, Hemadri D & Archana CA. 2023. Investigating a sheep anthrax outbreak in Karkihalli Village, Karnataka, India: An integrated study of demographic, ecological, socio-economic, and risk factors. International Journal of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, SP-8(5): 292–297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22271/veterinary.2023.v8.i5Se.785

Sushma B, Shedole S, Suresh KP, Leena G, Mohan Kumar GS & Patil SS. 2022. Estimation of The Basic Reproduction Number to Assess the Impact of Precipitation Change on the Risk of an Anthrax Outbreak Among Livestock in Karnataka, India. Webology, 19(2): 2898-2999.

Sushma B, Shedole S, Suresh KP, Leena G, Patil SS & Srikantha G. 2021. An Estimate of Global Anthrax Prevalence in Livestock: A Meta-analysis. Veterinary World, 14(5): 1263–1271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2021.1263-1271

Venkatesha MD. 2006. Anthrax- a study in Karnataka state. Intas-Polivet, 7(2): 307–312.

Downloads

Published

2024-06-03

How to Cite

Suresh, K. P., Sagar, N., Naveesh, Y. B., Jayashree, A., Hemadri, D., Patil, S. S., Doddamani, R., & Sushma, R. (2024). Sheep anthrax outbreak in Muddaballi Village, Karnataka, India: a comprehensive study of factors. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology, 18, 53–56. https://doi.org/10.58628/JAE-2418-110